Jesus shares no biological relationship to Joseph and the 14 generations that preceded him. [25] Therefore, per Adam Clarke (1817), John Wesley, John Kitto and others the expression "Joseph, [ ] of Heli", without the word "son" being present in the Greek, indicates that "Joseph, of Heli" is to be read "Joseph, [son-in-law] of Heli". [6], The rendering into Greek of Hebrew names in this genealogy is mostly in accord with the Septuagint, but there are a few peculiarities. Nathan was the older brother; Solomon was younger, next in line after him (see 2 Sam 5:14–16; 1 Cron 3:5), therefore he was the first candidate to a levirate marriage (compare Ruth 3–4; Lk 20:27–33). These two Gospels declare that Jesus was begotten not by Joseph, but by the power of the Holy Spirit while Mary was still a virgin, in fulfillment of prophecy. it is easy to come to the conclusion that one of the two genealogies in. Thus: Matthan or Matthat father of Jacob, Heli Jacob father of Mary = Jacobe heir was (Joseph) Heli father of Joseph JESUS, called Christ. Solomon, however, had much capacity for love: «And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines» (1 Kings 11:3). There were many who bore the name of Jesus— e.g., Jesus the son or Sirach, Jesus surnamed Justus (Colossians 4:11), possibly even Jesus Bar-abbas (Matthew 27:17). He mentions the names of four women: Tamar, Rahab, Ruth and Bathsheba (who is the one to whom the pronoun “her” in verse six refers). Lightfoot[48] sees confirmation in an obscure passage of the Talmud,[52] which, as he reads it, refers to "Mary daughter of Eli"; however, both the identity of this Mary and the reading are doubtful. ", Matthew emphasizes, right from the beginning, Jesus' title Christ—the Greek rendering of the Hebrew title Messiah—meaning anointed, in the sense of an anointed king. So, in theory, he could have married Nathan's widow. He sees God working through Tamar's seduction of her father-in-law, through the collusion of Rahab the harlot with Joshua's spies, through Ruth the Moabite's unexpected marriage with Boaz, and through David and Bathsheba's adultery. [45] This view was advanced as early as John of Damascus (d.749). and Solomon (Joseph's side). It must be added that the levirate links between the two genealogies are found not only at the end, but also in the beginning. Matthew has twenty-seven generations from David to Joseph, whereas Luke has forty-two, with almost no overlap between the names on the two lists.⁠ Notably, the two accounts also disagree on who Joseph's father was: Matthew says he was Jacob, while Luke says he was Heli. The genealogy in Luke 3:23-28 ascends from Joseph to Adam or rather to God; this is the first striking difference between the genealogies as presented in the First and Third Gospel. Matthew begins by calling Jesus the son of David, indicating his royal origin, and also son of Abraham, indicating that he was an Israelite; both are stock phrases, in which son means descendant, calling to mind the promises God made to David and to Abraham. Such reasoning could further explain what has happened with Zerubbabel and Shealtiel. [105] Others, such as Thomas Aquinas, have argued that the relationship was on the maternal side; that Mary's father was from Judah, Mary's mother from Levi. Controversy has surrounded the name Panther, mentioned above, because of a charge that Jesus' father was a soldier named Pantera. – Matthew 1:1. [38] Sextus Julius Africanus, in his 3rd-century Epistle to Aristides, reports a tradition that Joseph was born from just such a levirate marriage. It has been suggested that Eli is short for Eliakim,[45] which in the Old Testament is an alternate name of Jehoiakim,[54] for whom Joachim is named. [citation needed]. [63] Although the Greek text as it stands is plainly against it, it has been proposed that in the original text Matthew had one Joseph as Mary's father and another as her husband. The women are included early in the genealogy—Tamar, Rachab, Ruth, and "the wife of Uriah" (Bathsheba). God promised to establish the throne of King, Against King Jehoiakim, Jeremiah prophesied, "He shall have no one to sit on the throne of David,", This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 13:37. The following propositions will explain the true construction of these genealogies:-- They are both the genealogies of Joseph, i.e. [16] This argument is problematic, however, because both trace their genealogy through Joseph. The women's nationalities are not necessarily mentioned. A Jewish tradition relating Mary to Luke's genealogy is recorded in the Doctrina Jacobi (written in 634), in which a Tiberian rabbi mocks the Christian veneration of Mary by recounting her genealogy according to the tradition of the Jews of Tiberias:[55], Why do Christians extol Mary so highly, calling her nobler than the Cherubim, incomparably greater than the Seraphim, raised above the heavens, purer than the very rays of the sun? [21] If so, the next generation in Luke, Joanan, might be Hananiah in Chronicles. [112] Affirmations of Mary's Davidic ancestry are found early and often.[113]. From the statement in the ancient Greek text, it is difficult to tell what the book of the genealogy refers to. [104] Whether she was an aunt, a cousin, or a more distant relation cannot be determined from the word. One of the ways each book does this is by recounting Jesus’ genealogy. According to this theory, Matthew's immediate goal is therefore not David, but Jeconiah, and in his final group of fourteen, he may freely jump to a maternal grandfather, skip generations, or perhaps even follow an adoptive lineage in order to get there. Bede assumed that Julius Africanus was mistaken and corrected Melchi to Matthat. When Matthew says, "Josiah begot Jeconiah and his brothers at the time of the exile," he appears to conflate the two, because Jehoiakim, not Jeconiah, had brothers, but the exile was in the time of Jeconiah. It is consistent with the early tradition ascribing a Davidic ancestry to Mary. [36], One common explanation for the divergence is that Matthew is recording the actual legal genealogy of Jesus through Joseph, according to Jewish custom, whereas Luke, writing for a Gentile audience, gives the actual biological genealogy of Jesus through Mary. This means that Mary was from the line of Amram, but not of Aaron's generation. In light of the above-mentioned circumstances, the differences between the two genealogies no longer present a problem. Thus there were fourteen generations in all from Abraham to David, fourteen from David to the exile to Babylon, and fourteen from the exile to the Christ." [37], The earliest tradition that explains the divergence of Joseph's lineages involves the law of levirate marriage. Luke's text says that Jesus was "a son, as was supposed, of Joseph, of Eli". [100] Matthew apparently quotes the ancient Septuagint translation of the verse, which renders the Hebrew word "almah" as "virgin" in Greek. of Jesus Christ as the reputed and legal son of Joseph and Mary. Jesus was called the “son of David” in Mat 1:1, which. [59] This claim was revived by Annius of Viterbo in 1498[60] and quickly grew in popularity. [16], This genealogy descends from the Davidic line through Nathan, who is an otherwise little-known son of David, mentioned briefly in the Old Testament.[17]. The same applies here; Sister of Aaron refers to "daughter of Aaron's siblings'", and daughter of Amram refers to "direct lineage of Amram" (Amram's descendants). Matthew traces Jesus' lineage through forty-two generations from Abraham to Christ. Another difference is found in their collocation: St. Matthew places his list at the beginning of his Gospel; St. Luke, at the beginning of the public life of Christ. After wrestling with a man all night (who was actually Jesus is human form) Jacob's name is changed to Israel (Genesis 32). The genealogy in Matthew 1 is clearly that of Joseph, Mary's husband. [15] After telling of the baptism of Jesus, Luke 3:23–38 states, "Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age, being (as was supposed) the son of Joseph, which was [the son] of Heli, ..." (3:23) and continues on until "Adam, which was [the son] of God." [56], A century later, John of Damascus and others report the same information, only inserting an extra generation, Barpanther (Aramaic for son of Panther, thus indicating a misunderstood Aramaic source). The genealogy of Christ opens by connecting Jesus to the family line of the promised Messiah. I wish I could simply dwell on that theme alone, but there are a number of difficult problems raised by this text that we need to consider. On a recent episode of Father Simon Says™, Fr. They are both the genealogies of Joseph, i.e. Nor is inheritance of lineage claims even possible through one's mother, in Jewish law.[75]. Matthew inserts four women into the long list of men. [81][82] Thus, in tracing the Davidic ancestry of Jesus, the Gospels aim to show that these messianic prophecies are fulfilled in him. Learn more Customer Service 800.778.3390 But there is one problem--they are different. The Catholic Encyclopedia. "[109], The question then arises, why do both gospels seem to trace the genealogy of Jesus through Joseph, when they deny that he is his biological father? An old problem for expositors has been the contradictory genealogies of Christ given in Matthew and Luke. (Godet, Lange and many others take the ground that Luke gives the genealogy of Mary, rendering ( Luke 3:23 ) thus: Jesus "being (as was suppposed ) the son of Joseph, (but in reality) the son of Heli." In the ancestry of David, Luke agrees completely with the Old Testament. point out their unusual, even scandalous, unions—preparing the reader for what will be said about Mary. The Talmud states, “A mother’s family is not to be called a family.” Even the few women Luke does mention were not the most prominent women in the genealogy of Yeshua. [19] This count also agrees with the seventy generations from Enoch[20] set forth in the Book of Enoch, which Luke probably knew. 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