For more information about the structure of noun phrases in English, see English grammar § Phrases. For them, phrases must contain two or more words. Download Grammarly's app to help with eliminating grammar errors and finding the right words. Did you enjoy reading this book? The layered trees of many phrase structure grammars grant noun phrases an intricate structure that acknowledges a hierarchy of functional projections. Your sister is a phrase (a group of words without a finite verb), and it functions as a noun in the sentence. Noun Phrase -a noun and any words in the sentence that modify it; words that can modify nouns include articles (a, an, the); adjectives; participles; and possessive pronouns. The first tree is based on the traditional assumption that nouns, rather than determiners, are the heads of phrases. Dependency trees, first using the traditional NP approach, then using the DP approach: The following trees represent a more complex phrase. and (Lockwood (2002:3). For example: Sometimes a noun phrase can also function as an adjunct of the main clause predicate, thus taking on an adverbial function, e.g. This is part of a strong tendency in English to place heavier constituents to the right, making English more of a head-initial language. In the English language, seven grammatical forms can appear within a noun phrase: 1. Postmodifiers can be: prepositional phrases: a man with a gun the boy in the blue shirt the house on the corner –ing phrases: the man standing over there the boy talking to Angela. Some grammarians also consider a single-word noun to be a noun phrase, while more traditional grammars hold that a phrase must be made up of two or more words. Head-final languages (e.g. Determiners 2. Prepositional phrases 4. Don't forget to try the activities and quiz below to test what you've learned! There are several different types, as follows: Noun phrase. Noun phrases typically bear argument functions. I hate having to punish my servants. A noun phrase usually contains a noun plus other words to describe it. So we call it a noun phrase. There are a number of different categories of nouns. In the sentence I like big houses, both houses and big houses are N-bars, but big houses also functions as a noun phrase (in this case without an explicit determiner). The second tree assumes the DP hypothesis, namely that determiners rather than nouns serve as phrase heads. A subject is a component of a clause or sentence that describes what the sentence/clause is about. [4] Dependency grammars, for instance, almost all assume the traditional NP analysis of noun phrases. Nouns & noun phrases We gave a loose definition of what a noun is in an earlier section, but we now need to consider this in more detail taking into account what nouns might look like, what their purpose is, where they occur in sentences and how they interact with other words. (In some accounts that take this approach, the constituent lacking the determiner – that called N-bar above – may be referred to as a noun phrase.). The head noun appears in bold. Verb phrase. For simplicity, only dependency-based trees are given.[5]. The chief types of these dependents are: The allowability, form and position of these elements depend on the syntax of the language in question. This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 04:05. FUNCTIONS OF NOUN PHRASES. Noun phrases are very common cross-linguistically, and they may be the most frequently occurring phrase type. Nouns in English are traditionally described as naming “persons, places, … Noun phrases are simply nouns with modifiers. Additional noun phrases examples (the noun phrase is … A noun phraseis a group of words that work together to name and describe a person, place, thing, or idea. He refused to answer the question. A direct object refers to a noun phrase, noun, or pronoun that is a recipient of a direct action of a verb. Note that there is still a noun phrase present (old picture of Fred that I found in the drawer) but this phrase is below the determiner. Noun phrases can be identified by the possibility of pronoun substitution, as is illustrated in the examples below. A typical noun phrase consists of a noun (the head of the phrase) together with zero or more dependents of various types. Watch the video to learn more about expanded noun phrases. Lockwood, D. 2002. More examples of noun phrases are given below: I enjoy playing tennis. Apart from the minimalist program, however, the DP hypothesis is rejected by most other modern theories of syntax and grammar, in part because these theories lack the relevant functional categories. Noun phrases can be embedded inside each other; for instance, the noun phrase some of his constituents contains the shorter noun phrase his constituents. They consist of a noun and other words that modify the noun. It has been the preferred analysis of noun phrases in the minimalist program from its start (since the early 1990s), though the arguments in its favor tend to be theory-internal. A noun phrase must contain noun or a pronoun. Syntactic analysis and description: A constructional approach. For definitions and discussions of the noun (nominal) phrase that point to the presence of a head noun, see for instance Crystal (1997:264), Lockwood (2002:3), and Radford (2004: 14, 348). When we look at the structure of writing, we treat a noun phrase the same way we treat a common noun. A phrase that can serve as the subject or the object of a verb; it is usually headed by a noun, (including pronouns), with any associated dependents such as determiners or modifiers. For direct examples of approaches that obscure the distinction between nouns and pronouns on the one hand and noun phrases on the other, see for instance Matthews (1981:160f.) Stockwell, P. 1977. Noun phrases The following sections define the seven grammatical forms that can appear within noun phrases in English as well as provides examples to illustrate use. Adjective phrases 3. You could replace Joan with a group of words (a phrase) and say, "I met your sister." In some more modern theories of grammar, noun phrases with determiners are analyzed as having the determiner as the head of the phrase, see for instance Chomsky (1995) and Hudson (1990). Thus in the sentence Here is the big house, both house and big house are N-bars, while the big house is a noun phrase. (Albert Einstein, 1879-1955) A noun phrase may consist of … They also function as arguments in such constructs as participial phrases and prepositional phrases. In other words, In other words, an appositive or appositive phrase is bonus information, it can be essential, important for the meaning of the sentence, or non-essential, Noun phrases can function in several different ways in a sentence. [3] That is, the syntactic functions that they fulfill are those of the arguments of the main clause predicate, particularly those of subject, object and predicative expression. ; Lydia was the successful applicant. A noun phrase is built around a single noun, for example: A vase of roses stood on the table. For an example of a relatively "flat" analysis of NP structure like the one produced here, but in a phrase structure grammar, see Culicover and Jackendoff (2005:140). A noun phrase is a word or group of words that can function as the subject, the object, or the complement in a sentence.. Some examples of noun phrases are underlined in the sentences below. A noun phrase refers to words that work the same way as a noun. A noun phrase consists of a noun or pronoun, which is called the head, and any dependent words before or after the head. On this understanding of phrases, the nouns and pronouns in bold in the following sentences are noun phrases (as well as nouns or pronouns): The words in bold are called phrases since they appear in the syntactic positions where multiple-word phrases (i.e. Noun -a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea. Concerning how noun phrases function, see for instance Stockwell (1977:55ff.). Examples of noun phrases Take a look at the example sentences below and think about which part of the sentence is a noun phrase. However, many modern schools of syntax – especially those that have been influenced by X-bar theory – make no such restriction. Foundations of syntactic theory Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. a word that describes or gives more information about a verb a word that describes a noun or pronoun He hopes to win the first prize. Remember that a phrase is different to a clause as it does not contain a noun and a verb, and therefore cannot stand on its own as a complete sentence, unlike a clause. Verb phrases 5. Dependent words give specific information about the head. In this case, a pronoun is used in place of a noun, and it could either be an indefinite pronoun or a subject pronoun. 'Door' is just a noun, but 'bright red door' is a noun phrase. Noun phrase definition is - a phrase formed by a noun and all its modifiers and determiners; broadly : any syntactic element (such as a clause, clitic, pronoun, or zero element) with a noun's function (such as the subject of a verb or the object of a verb or preposition) —abbreviation NP. Traditionally, a phrase is understood to contain two or more words. In English, determiners, adjectives (and some adjective phrases) and noun modifiers precede the head noun, whereas the heavier units – phrases and clauses – generally follow it. The determiner the is now depicted as the head of the entire phrase, thus making the phrase a determiner phrase. Straight talking and methodical, "Smashing Grammar" (Our Grammar Book, 2019). Dependency grammars, in contrast, since the basic architecture of dependency places a major limitation on the amount of structure that the theory can assume, produce simple, relatively flat structures for noun phrases. Vocational rather than academic, "Grammar for Grown-ups" is packed with real-life examples and keeps you engaged with a wealth of great quotations from Homer the Greek to Homer the Simpson. Because the noun phrase is a quintessential part of every sentence (even if it doesn't appear in the surface structure of a sentence as in "stop! Japanese and Turkish) are more likely to place all modifiers before the head noun. I promise to come again. Noun phrase definition, a construction that functions syntactically as a noun, consisting of a noun and any modifiers, as all the men in the room who are reading books, or of a noun … In the original X-bar theory, the two respective types of entity are called noun phrase (NP) and N-bar (N, N′). The representation also depends on whether the noun or the determiner is taken to be the head of the phrase (see the discussion of the DP hypothesis in the previous section). The word he, for instance, functions as a pronoun, but within the sentence it also functions as a noun phrase. This analysis of noun phrases is widely referred to as the DP hypothesis. Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I'm not sure about the former. The phrase structure grammars of the Chomskyan tradition (government and binding theory and the minimalist program) are primary examples of theories that apply this understanding of phrases. The representation of noun phrases using parse trees depends on the basic approach to syntactic structure adopted. The term "verb phrase" is a noun phrase . An indefinite pronoun refers to a pronoun that does not specify a particular place, person, or thing. A noun phrase includes a noun—a person, place, or thing—and the modifiers that distinguish it. Like all nouns, a noun phrase can be a subject, object, or complement. Adjective clauses 6. For illustrations of different analyses of noun phrases depending on whether the DP hypothesis is rejected or accepted, see the next section. A phrase is deemed to be a word or a combination of words that appears in a set syntactic position, for instance in subject position or object position. The manager interviewed all the applicants on Tuesday. When a noun phrase is the subject of a verb, don't let the modifiers divert your eye from the head noun as it must govern the verb. noun, adjective, adverb) within its structure. By taking the determiner, a function word, to be head over the noun, a structure is established that is analogous to the structure of the finite clause, with a complementizer. A phrase is a small group of words that forms a meaningful unit within a clause. Expanded noun phrases tell you more about the noun. Noun clauses 7. A noun phrase is a group of words that does the work of a noun. In some languages, including English, noun phrases are required to be "completed" with a determiner in many contexts, and thus a distinction is made in syntactic analysis between phrases that have received their required determiner (such as the big house), and those in which the determiner is lacking (such as big house). Examples of noun … Similarly, noun phrases can also work in a sentence as adjectives, participles, infinitives, and prepositional or absolute … As to whether the string must contain at least two words, see the following section. A noun phrase is a small group of words which contains a noun but doesn't contain a verb. A noun phrase must always contain a noun or a pronoun. The tree shows how the lighter dependents appear as pre-dependents (preceding their head) and the heavier ones as post-dependents (following their head). In this sentence the word Joan is a noun. There are also types of phrases like noun phrase and prepositional phrase. Nouns and Noun Phrases. Often a noun phrase is just a noun or a pronoun: People like to have money. What Is The Difference Between Noun Phrase and Adjective phrase? Other languages, such as French, often place even single-word adjectives after the noun. Do you disagree with something on this page. A noun is a word that refers to a thing (book), a person (Betty Crocker), an animal (cat), a place (Omaha), a quality (softness), an idea (justice), or an action (yodeling). Unconditional help for primary teachers and literacy leads http://www.primaryenglishlab.co.uk A noun phrase is a group of words that serves the same purpose as a noun. ; See Direct and indirect objects and Complements for more information about these functions. In some modern theories of syntax, however, what are called "noun phrases" above are no longer considered to be headed by a noun, but by the determiner (which may be null), and they are thus called determiner phrases (DP) instead of noun phrases. relative clauses: the man we met yesterday the house that Jack built Noun phrases are defined as phrases in which a noun functions as the head of the phrase. A phrase typically appears within a clause, but it is possible also for a phrase to be a clause or to contain a clause within it. Just as nouns can act as subjects, objects, and prepositional objects, so can noun phrases. (Situations in which this is possible depend on the rules of the language in question; for English, see English articles.). It's usually a single word, but not always: cake, shoes, school bus, and time and a half are all nouns. The simplest noun phrase consists of a … 1. A string of words that can be replaced by a single pronoun without rendering the sentence grammatically unacceptable is a noun phrase. She was reading a book about the emancipation of women. From the Cambridge English Corpus The latter emerged only through a long-drawn … The head noun picture has the four dependents the, old, of Fred, and that I found in the drawer. For discussion and criticism of the DP analysis of noun phrases, see Matthews (2007:12ff.). Has the four dependents the, old, of Fred, and that found., making what is a noun phrase more of a preposition phrases and prepositional phrase representation of noun phrases in which noun. 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