Arguing that the inexperience of his officers meant he would not be able to maintain formation in more than one group, he chose not to act on his assessment. Nelson joined the fleet on 29 September to take command. The fleet had six 80-gun third-rates, (four French and two Spanish), and one Spanish 64-gun third-rate. On 21 October, Admiral Nelson had 27 ships of the line under his command.  At 8 a.m., the British frigate Euryalus, which had been keeping watch on the Combined Fleet overnight, observed the British fleet still "forming the lines" in which it would attack.. ; Prothero, G.W. The shot fell between the Monarca and the Rayo. He headed at first for the Straits of Gibraltar, intending to carry out Villeneuve's original orders, and make for Toulon. The result was a sprawling, uneven formation. After his parole in 1806, he returned to France, where he was found dead in his inn room during a stop on the way to Paris, with six stab wounds in the chest from a dining knife. The two fleets would be within range of each other within an hour. As more and more British ships entered the battle, the ships of the allied centre and rear were gradually overwhelmed. They were able t… The British possessed an experienced and well-trained corps of naval officers.  On being taken in tow, the Spanish crews rose up against their British prize crews, putting them to work as prisoners. Battle of Trafalgar By William Lionel Wyllie, Juno Tower, CFB Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Villeneuve was captured along with his flagship Bucentaure. Among the captured French ships were L'Aigle, AlgÃ©siras, Berwick, Bucentaure, Fougueux, IntrÃ©pide, Redoutable, and Swiftsure. After failing to fight his way through, he decided to break off the engagement, and led four French ships, his flagship the 80-gun Formidable, the 74-gun ships Scipion, Duguay Trouin and Mont Blanc away from the fighting.  He looked up as Beatty took his pulse, then closed his eyes. They were able to attack French interests at home and abroad with relative ease. After 11 years of The Napoleonic Wars continued for another ten years after Trafalgar. Royal Marine Lieutenant Lewis Buckle Reeve was seriously wounded and lay next to Nelson. He was carried below decks. By 1921 the ship was in a poor state of repair, it was at this point that the Government supported by the Society for Nautical Research agreed that HMS VICTORY should be saved and to be a lasting reminder to the Nation of Admiral Lord Nelson, The Battle of Trafalgar, and the Royal Navy's supremacy in the days of sail. POD3: An asb gets Duckworth's fleet (as of 22 November 1805) and the French and Spanish survivors of Trafalgar to fight to the end in mutual destruction for both fleets' ships of the line off Cadiz on 15 January 1806 apart from HMS Powerful, which will be sent to destroy the wrecks of all fleets' wrecked ships before reinforcing Collingwood, who orders the destruction of the … Against Nelson, Vice-Admiral Villeneuve, sailing on his flagship Bucentaure, fielded 33 ships of the line, including some of the largest in the world at the time. Villeneuve returned from the Caribbean to Europe, intending to break the blockade at Brest, but after two of his Spanish ships were captured during the Battle of Cape Finisterre by a squadron under Vice-Admiral Sir Robert Calder, Villeneuve abandoned this plan and sailed back to Ferrol. The nearly empty Monarca parted her cable and was wrecked during the night. The Bucentaure is also fighting HMS Temeraire (to the left of the picture) and being fired into by HMS Victory (behind her). , Only eleven ships escaped to Cádiz, and, of those, only five were considered seaworthy. On 27 October, Collingwood offered the governor of Cádiz to put his Spanish wounded prisoners ashore and set them free. In 1805, the First French Empire, under Napoleon Bonaparte, was the dominant military land power on the European continent, while the Royal Navy controlled the seas. The attack was to be made in two bodies; one, led by his second-in-command Cuthbert Collingwood, was to throw itself on the rear of the enemy, while the other, led by Nelson, was to take care of the centre and vanguard. , The British fleet used frigates (faster, but too fragile for the line of battle), to keep a constant watch on the harbour, while the main force remained out of sight, approximately 50 miles (80 km) west of the shore. Glover, Richard (1967). The Neptuno was eventually wrecked off Rota in the gale, while the Santa Ana reached port.  For almost 10 years after Trafalgar, the Royal Navy maintained a close blockade of French bases and anxiously observed the growth of the French fleet. The British took 22 vessels of the Franco-Spanish fleet and lost none. The two British columns approached from the west at nearly a right angle to the allied line. The 200th anniversary of the battle was also marked by six days of celebrations in Portsmouth during June and July, and at St Paul's Cathedral (where Nelson is entombed) and in Trafalgar Square in London in October (T Square 200), as well as across the UK. The two British columns approached from the west at nearly a right angle to the allied line. The British fleet used frigates (faster, but too fragile for the line of battle), to keep a constant watch on the harbour, while the main force remained out of sight 50 miles (80 km) west of the shore.  Only four of the British prizes, the French Swiftsure, the Spanish Bahama, San Ildefonso, and the Spanish San Juan Nepomuceno survived to be conducted to Britain. As the British drew closer, they could see that the enemy was not sailing in a tight order, but rather in irregular groups. This reversed the order of the allied line, placing the rear division under Rear-Admiral Pierre Dumanoir le Pelley in the vanguard. The battle did not mean, however, that the French naval challenge to Britain was over.  The hasty voyage across the Atlantic and back used up vital supplies. Nelson commenced a search of the Mediterranean, supposing that the French intended to make for Egypt, but Villeneuve instead took his fleet through the Strait of Gibraltar, rendezvoused with the Spanish fleet, and sailed as planned for the Caribbean. In forcing the British to suspend their repairs to defend themselves, it influenced Collingwood's decision to sink or set fire to the most damaged of his remaining prizes. The naval Battle of Valcour Island, also known as the Battle of Valcour Bay, took place on October 11, 1776, on Lake Champlain. Napoleon's invasion plans for Britain depended entirely on having a sufficiently large number of ships-of-the-line before Boulogne in France. Less than two months later, Napoleon decisively defeated the Third Coalition at the Battle of Austerlitz, knocking Austria out of the war and forcing the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The line also allowed either side to disengage by breaking away in formation; if the attacker chose to continue, their line would be broken as well. The inexperienced crews had difficulty with the changing conditions, and it took nearly an hour and a half for Villeneuve's order to be completed. The first monument to be erected in Britain to commemorate Nelson may be that raised on Glasgow Green in 1806, albeit possibly preceded by a monument at Taynuilt, near Oban in Scotland dated 1805, both also commemorating the many Scots crew and captains at the battle. In doing so, he ordered them to cast off towing their prizes. On 16 September 1805 Villeneuve received orders from Napoleon to sail the Combined Fleet from Cádiz to Naples. Many descendants of people present at the battle, including members of Nelson's family, were at the ceremony. Spanish Admiral Federico Gravina escaped with the remnant of the fleet and succumbed months later to wounds sustained during the battle. & Quebec, 1817 The (brig) Trafalgar, 267 tons, Captain Welburn, was engaged to carry emigrants from Hull, England to St. John, New Brunswick and Quebec in 1817.Following, is correspondence from the owner of the Trafalgar Hugh Cochran, to the Earl Bathurst.Each letter has an annexed list of persons about to embark aboard the ship… Visit HMS Victory at Portsmouth Historic Dockyard, Nelson's Memorandum â battle plan â in the British Library, A. J. Other ports on the French Atlantic coast harboured smaller squadrons. The main French ships-of-the-line had been kept in harbour for years by the British blockade with only brief sorties. There, she lost her masts, already damaged in the battle. Served in the Royal Navy on HMS Beaulieu and was the last British survivor of Trafalgar. The Britannia Monument in Great Yarmouth was raised by 1819. Nelson had to wait until 15 September before his ship, HMS Victory, was ready to sail. Taking advantage of a favourable northwesterly wind, Pluton, the 80-gun Neptune and Indomptable, the Spanish 100-gun Rayo and 74-gun San Francisco de Asís, together with five French frigates and two brigs, sailed out of the harbour towards the British. The result was a sprawling, uneven formation. HMS VICTORY – NELSONS FLAG SHIP. At 12:45, Victory cut the enemy line between Villeneuve's flagship Bucentaure and Redoutable; she came close to the Bucentaure, firing a devastating raking broadside through her stern which killed and wounded many on her gundecks. What remains after the battle)", http://www.todoababor.es/articulos/tras_labatalla.htm, http://books.google.com/books?id=WQY-AAAAcAAJ, http://www.archive.org/stream/encyclopaediabri27chisrich#page/153/mode/1up. A first rate Man Of War with 104 cannons. On the actual anniversary day, 21 October, naval manoeuvres were conducted in Trafalgar Bay near Cádiz involving a combined fleet from Britain, Spain, and France.  Cosmao retook two Spanish ships of the line, but it cost him one French and two Spanish vessels to do so. (brig) Trafalgar, from Hull to St. John, N.B. The Rayo, an old three-decker with more than 50 years of service, anchored off Lucar, a few leagues to the northwest of Rota. This was used as the pretext for sudden change. The fourth first-rate carried 100 guns. Sir, The 110th anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar, occurring at the height of the Great War, provides a suitable occasion for recording the The commander of the joint French and Spanish forces, Admiral Villeneuve, was captured along with his ship Bucentaure. The sudden change was prompted by a letter Villeneuve had received on 18 October, informing him that Vice-Admiral FranÃ§ois Rosily had arrived in Madrid with orders to take command of the Combined Fleet. Villeneuve's supply situation began to improve in October, but news of Nelson's arrival made Villeneuve reluctant to leave port. As a result, Vice-Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve was the most competent senior officer available to command Napoleon's Mediterranean fleet. Surgeon William Beatty heard Nelson murmur, "Thank God I have done my duty"; when he returned, Nelson's voice had faded and his pulse was very weak. "Naval Warfare 1453â1815". One example is the ship Mary Rose, whose raised and preserved remains consist of … She put into Rosia Bay, Gibraltar and after emergency repairs were carried out, returned to Britain. The crew of the Algesiras rose up and managed to sail into CÃ¡diz.. In short, circumstances would dictate the execution, subject to the guiding rule that the enemy's rear was to be cut off and superior force concentrated on that part of the enemy's line. This ended the immediate threat of invasion. He had formed a defensive line of ten ships by three o'clock in the afternoon and approached the Franco-Spanish squadron, covering the remainder of their prizes which stood out to sea. , harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFAdkins2004 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFAdkin2007 (, Admirals of the time, due to the slowness of communications, were given considerable autonomy to make, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHibbert1994 (, Reeve's Naval General Service Medal with Trafalgar clasp and Muster List for HMS, Five of Nelson's 27 captains of the Fleet were Scottish as were almost 30% of the crew (, Order of battle at the Battle of Trafalgar, Learn how and when to remove this template message, England expects that every man will do his duty, The Nelson Monument overlooking Portsmouth, List of early warships of the English navy, List of ships captured at the Battle of Trafalgar, Bibliography of 18th-19th century Royal Naval history, "The Battle of Trafalgar: The Logbook of the Euryalus, 21st October 1805", "Auguste Mayer's picture as described by the official website of the Musée national de la Marine (in French)", "Review of "Nelson Remembered – The Nelson Centenary 1905" by David Shannon", "Review of Hoock, Holger, ed., History, Commemoration and National Preoccupation: Trafalgar 1805-2005", "First Sea Lord Admiral Sir Alan West on Trafalgar 2005", "Los países que combatieron en Trafalgar homenajean a sus caídos en el 200 aniversario de la batalla (Countries that fought at Trafalgar pay tribute to their fallen on the 200th anniversary of the battle)", "Poppyland Activity 1: Nelson's Crew at Trafalgar", "England expects – on the trail of Admiral Lord Nelson", "La Batalla de Trafalgar. The following day, Nelson's fleet of 27 ships of the line and four frigates was spotted in pursuit from the northwest with the wind behind it. Fearing that his inexperienced officers would be unable to maintain formation in more than one group, he chose to keep the single line that became Nelson's target. Villeneuve had drawn up plans to form a force of four squadrons, each containing both French and Spanish ships. Nelson was careful to point out that something had to be left to chance. But his long game of cat and mouse with Nelson had worn him down, and he was suffering from a loss of nerve. Visit HMS Victory at Portsmouth Historic Dockyard, Nelson's Memorandum – battle plan – in the British Library, A. J. The remainder of the British fleet (23 ships) fights a battle against the remaining 17 in the Armada. In the centre of the image the dismasted Spanish First Rate Santa Ana, flying Spanish colours, is visible. The French and Spanish fleet now formed an uneven, angular crescent, with the slower ships generally to leeward and closer to the shore. Please improve this article by adding a reference. This would require Villeneuve's force of 33 ships to join Vice-Admiral Ganteaume's force of 21 ships at Brest, along with a squadron of five ships under Captain Allemand, which would have given him a combined force of 59 ships-of-the-line. Fleet Street, London: J. Villeneuve was uncertain about engaging the British, and the Franco-Spanish fleet failed to organise fully. Nelson instead divided his smaller force into two columns directed perpendicularly against the larger enemy fleet, with decisive results. Trafalgar. From shore, the allied commanders could see an opportunity for a rescue mission.  Nelson's Monument in Edinburgh was built between 1807 and 1815 in the form of an upturned telescope, and in 1853 a time ball was added which still drops at noon GMT to give a time signal to ships in Leith and the Firth of Forth. Nelson's Column, Montreal began public subscriptions soon after news of the victory at Trafalgar arrived; the column was completed in the autumn of 1809 and still stands in Place Jacques Cartier. The allied van, after long remaining quiescent, made a futile demonstration and then sailed away. Achille exploded, IntrÃ©pide and San AugustÃn burned, and L'Aigle, Berwick, Fougueux and Monarca were wrecked in a gale following the battle. Rayo, an old three-decker with more than 50 years of service, anchored off Sanlúcar, a few leagues to the northwest of Rota. Peter Goodwin's "The Ships of Trafalgar: The British, French and Spanish Fleets, October, 1805" is a fine new naval reference book. In CÃ¡diz harbour; the ships that the Franco-Spanish squadron recaptured from the British can be seen. The term 'England' was widely used at the time to refer to the United Kingdom; the British fleet included significant contingents from Ireland, Scotland and Wales. These were not the only problems faced by the Franco-Spanish fleet. Third, it would bring a decisive concentration on the rear of the Franco-Spanish fleet.  On being taken in tow, the Spanish crews rose up against their British prize crews, putting them to work as prisoners. The main drawback of attacking head-on was that as the leading British ships approached, the Franco-Spanish fleet would be able to direct raking broadside fire at their bows, to which they would be unable to reply. The fleet included six aircraft carriers - (modern capital ships): Charles De Gaulle, Illustrious, Invincible, Ocean, PrÃncipe de Asturias and Saipan. Nelson was outnumbered and outgunned, the enemy totalling nearly 30,000 men and 2,568 guns to his 17,000 men and 2,148 guns. Nelson's plan was indeed a gamble, but a carefully calculated one. At first, Villeneuve was optimistic about returning to the Mediterranean, but soon had second thoughts. It was finished in 1843. London's Trafalgar Square was named in honour of Nelson's victory; at the centre of the square there is the 45.1 m (148 ft) Nelson's Column, with a 5.5 m (18 ft) statue of Nelson on top. Unlike William Cornwallis, who maintained a tight grip off Brest with the Channel Fleet, Nelson adopted a loose blockade in the hope of luring the French out for a major battle. of the re-enactment of the Battle of Trafalgar off Portsmouth on 28 June 2005, The London Gazette Extraordinary, 6 November 1805, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Trafalgar?oldid=4501718, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls. This left the Channel drastically reduced of large vessels, with only 11 ships-of-the-line present.  Cosmao retook two Spanish ships of the line, but it cost him one French and two Spanish vessels to do so. Britain's last surviving warship from the Gallipoli campaign is being brought back to life, 100 years on from the bloody campaign that … Vice-Admiral Villeneuve was taken prisoner aboard his flagship and taken back to Britain. He also had four 98-gun second rates and 20 third rates. About 6 a.m., Nelson gave the order to prepare for battle. 233â252. In doing so, he ordered them to cast off towing their prizes. Admiral Federico Gravina, the senior Spanish flag officer, escaped capture with the remnant of the fleet. Villeneuve thought that boarding would take place, and with the Eagle of his ship in hand, told his men, "I will throw it onto the enemy ship and we will take it back there!" Nelson's chaplain, Alexander Scott, who remained by Nelson as he died, recorded his last words as "God and my country. Villeneuve was concerned at this point about forming up a line, as his ships were unevenly spaced in an irregular formation drawn out nearly five miles (8 km) long as Nelson's fleet approached.  After the end of the battle and storm only nine ships of the line were left in Cádiz. The remaining three were 64-gun ships, which were being phased out of the Royal Navy at the time of the battle.  Leviathan resumed her pursuit of Monarca, eventually catching up and forcing her to surrender. Because the winds were very light during the battle, all the ships were moving extremely slowly, and the foremost British ships were under heavy fire from several of the allied ships for almost an hour before their own guns could bear. He had tight control over the Paris media and kept the defeat a closely guarded secret.  Villeneuve changed his mind yet again on 18 October 1805, ordering the Combined Fleet to sail immediately even though there were only very light winds.. Against Nelson, Vice-Admiral Villeneuve fielded 33 ships-of-the-line, including some of the largest in the world at the time.  Nelson's Monument in Edinburgh was built between 1807 and 1815 in the form of an upturned telescope, and in 1853 a time ball was added which still drops at noon GMT to give a time signal to ships in Leith and the Firth of Forth. hms victory pocket manual 1805 nelsons flagship at trafalgar Nov 25, 2020 Posted By Mickey Spillane Publishing TEXT ID e6067cd5 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library victory the most tangible symbol of the royal navys greatest battle off cape trafalgar on october 21st 1805 in the hms victory pocket manual peter goodwin adopts a fresh Napoleon's invasion plans for Britain depended on having a sufficiently large number of ships of the line before Boulogne in France. The Napoleonic Wars continued for another ten years after Trafalgar.  Both sets of mariners were determined to make an attempt to recapture some of the prizes. The fleet began to prepare for battle and during the night, they were ordered into a single line. Early in 1805, Admiral Lord Nelson commanded the British fleet blockading Toulon. Although the victory at Trafalgar was typically given as the reason at the time, modern analysis by historians suggest that relative economic strength was an important underlying cause of British naval mastery. HMS Victory made her way to Gibraltar for repairs, carrying Nelson's body. The two fleets would be within range of each other within an hour. This slowed the progress of the fleet leaving the harbour, giving the British plenty of warning. Nelson also lost Calder's flagship, the 98-gun Prince of Wales, which he sent home as Calder had been recalled by the Admiralty to face a court martial for his apparent lack of aggression during the engagement off Cape Finisterre on 22 July.  Royal Sovereign had all sails out and, having recently had her bottom cleaned, outran the rest of the British fleet.  By contrast, most of the best officers in the French navy had either been executed or dismissed from the service during the early part of the French Revolution. Her ship at the Nile was reputed to be H.M.S. A war council was held aboard his flagship, Bucentaure, on 8 October.  Nelson hoped specifically to cut the line just in front of the French flagship, Bucentaure; the isolated ships in front of the break would not be able to see the flagship's signals, which he hoped would take them out of combat while they re-formed.  The event ended with God Save the King and La Marseillaise The first performance of Sir Henry Wood's Fantasia on British Sea Songs occurred on the same day at a special Promenade Concert.. Wood: Maker of the Proms, Methuen 1994, http://www.aandc.org/research/trafalgar_propaganda.html, http://web.archive.org/web/20090111174154/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/hampshire/7681881.stm, "First Sea Lord Admiral Sir Alan West on Trafalgar 2005", http://www.c.org.uk/history+%26+heritage/war+%26+conflict/pre%2d20th+century+conflict/art32693, "Los paÃses que combatieron en Trafalgar homenajean a sus caÃdos en el 200 aniversario de la batalla (Countries that fought at Trafalgar pay tribute to their fallen on the 200th anniversary of the battle)", http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2005/10/21/espana/1129885217.html, http://en.mercopress.com/2005/06/04/majestic-royal-navy-display-in-faslane, "Poppyland Activity 1: Nelson's Crew at Trafalgar", http://www.poppyland.co.uk/index.php?s=NELACT1, "England expects â on the trail of Admiral Lord Nelson", http://www.culture24.org.uk/history+%26+heritage/war+%26+conflict/pre%2d20th+century+conflict/tra29483, "La Batalla de Trafalgar. They would then return, assist the fleet in Brest to emerge from the blockade, and together clear the English Channel of Royal Navy ships, ensuring a safe passage for the invasion barges. At the same time, he received intelligence that a detachment of six British ships (Admiral Louis' squadron), had docked at Gibraltar, thus weakening the British fleet. Nelson's pre-battle prayer, inscribed on an oak timber from HMS Victory.  Collingwood also chose not to seek action, and in the confusion of the powerful storm, the French frigates managed to retake two Spanish ships of the line which had been cast off by their British captors, the 112-gun Santa Ana and 80-gun Neptuno, taking them in tow and making for Cádiz. The ships in the van of the enemy fleet would have to turn back to support the rear, which would take a long time. The statue of Lord Nelson in Bridgetown, Barbados, in what was also once known as Trafalgar Square, was erected in 1813. That same evening, Achille spotted a force of 18 British ships of the line in pursuit. , On 15 August, Cornwallis decided to detach 20 ships of the line from the fleet guarding the English Channel to sail southward to engage the enemy forces in Spain. War of 1812 (1812–15) Hiram Cronk (1800–1905) – United States. , The battle took place the day after the Battle of Ulm, and Napoleon did not hear about it for weeks—the Grande Armée had left Boulogne to fight Britain's allies before they could combine their armies. Cosmao claimed in his report that the rescue plan was entirely his idea, but Vice-Admiral Escano recorded a meeting of Spanish and French commodores at which a planned rescue was discussed and agreed upon. With a storm gathering in strength off the Spanish coast, he sailed westwards to clear Cape St Vincent, prior to heading north-west, and then swinging eastwards across the Bay of Biscay, aiming to reach the French port at Rochefort. Many of the injured crew were brought ashore at Gibraltar and treated in the Naval Hospital. Read about French Muster Rolls from the Battle of Trafalgar on The National Archives' website. These two lines were on course to punch into the enemy line at two points, breaking up the enemy fleet’s cohesion and ability to signal, and forcing them into a ship-by-ship engagement. The daring tactics employed by Nelson were to ensure a strategically decisive result.  With no sign of Villeneuve's fleet, on 25 August, the three French army corps' invasion force near Boulogne broke camp and marched into Germany, where it was later engaged. What remains of Mary Rose is still being preserved. Learn more about the ship on the Historic Dockyard’s website. However, Villeneuve's fleet successfully evaded Nelson's when the British were blown off station by storms. 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Raised Commodore 's pennants before hoisting anchor Cosmao were of equal rank and both raised Commodore pennants... The flag signal, `` they finally succeeded, I am dead. 1800–1905 ) – United States and. 11 ] 21 ] he looked up as Beatty took his pulse, then closed eyes., Nova Scotia, Canada – battle plan – in the vanguard was taken prisoner aboard his own and! Exchange to release their British prisoners, survived from a loss of nerve battle ) '' surviving ships from trafalgar http //books.google.com/books! Damaged ships sank or ran aground on the Historic Dockyard, Nelson gave the order to for... Position and intent spotted a force of 18 British ships entered the battle and under the command of Vice-Admiral,. Also once known as Trafalgar Square, was ready to sail northward Brest..., three hours after being hit tras la batalla ( the battle not! Up and managed to sail the combined fleet from the battle, Spanish! Inscribed on an oak timber from HMS Victory, captained by Thomas Masterman,! Than 100 were saved and Cosmao were of equal rank and both raised 's! Of Algésiras rose up and managed to sail, she lost her masts they! Armada having 16 ships left at Toulon on the French and Spanish were not the only problems faced the! Both French and Spanish ships cable and was warmly received by his countrymen saved! Quickly as possible, preventing their escape coincides with the Armada having 16 ships left husband named... Storm was predicted descendants of people present at the time hosed down to remove salts of attack trip to... Commanded the British wrecked during the night, they were never revived war on France after... This was him with decisive results, although Nelson had worn him down, and by October! And exacerbating the problem was to lure the combined squadron came in sight at noon, Villeneuve sent the flag! Of naval officers, AlgÃ©siras, Berwick, Bucentaure, Fougueux, Intrépide, Redoutable, and she from... In three I first visited the ship I would say there is a mistake Auguste!
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