Nuce de Lamothe M de, Wuidart W, Rognon F, Sangare A. There are four types of coconut based on the interval between the opening of the spathe and the receptivity of the first female flower. Grown in more than 80 countries, it is a life-sustaining species in fragile coastal and island ecosystems. The coconut palm is diploid (2n=32). Crop specific regeneration guidelines [CD-ROM]. (photo: Fonana Youssouf), Conditioning coconut pollen in a freezer. Detect off-types by their special traits, e.g. Dwarfs should be planted at a density of 205 palms/ha with a spacing of 6.5m between palms and 5.6 m between rows. The coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) belongs to the Arecaceae family (Order Arecales) and is the only species of the genus Cocos. There are two distinctively different forms of the coconut fruit, known as niu kafa and niu vai, Samoan names for traditional Polynesian For most talls and some dwarf cultivars, a high rate of natural pollination between accessions results in seed nuts that are not true to type. Most of the crop, up to 80%, is for local consumption while the remaining 20% goes to the international market. Coconut palm is an important multipurpose tropical tree of the humid tropics that supports millions of people in coastal and island ecosystems for their livelihood. Coco sugar is fast becoming unaffordable here in the Philippines because it is being exported to Japan where the demand is very high. As the fruit matures, the weights of the water and the solid endosperm (kernel) range between 21–449 g and 98–553 g, respectively (de Taffin, 1998). The native origin of the palm is uncertain, as the nuts were easily dispersed between both islands and continents by ocean currents and by early explorers. Identify off-type materials at the nursery level by distinguishing features such as speed of germination and the colour of the palm. Place the earliest germinating seedlings in the first row in the eastern side of the area and the later germinating seedlings on the western side to reduce competition for sunlight. Available here (4.4 MB). Take fruit to the nursery straight away and store in the shade to complete the maturation process. When the sprout emerges through the husk to a height of 4–6 cm, trim seedlings of any injured roots and plant in polybags filled with appropriate soil–manure mixture. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a perennial plant that bears fruit continuously for up to 60–70 years, 12–13 times a year, yielding between 30 and 75 fruits per year. 7.6A–B, respectively. 1-3), while on dwarf cultivars, leaves generally turn a reddish to grayish-brown (Fig. The endocarp is lignified and about 3–6 mm thick and turns brown when mature. Plant description Coconut palm is a tree with a slim and smooth trunk, a crown of leaves, and rounded, green or yellow fruit. Humans have also played a major role in dispersal, because of its ability to provide many different resources such as food and water. Examples are the Brazil Green Dwarf and many dwarf x tall hybrids. Packaged coconut water products marketed in developing countries. Coconuts are conserved ex situ in field genebanks, but are propagated from seed. One year is required between pollination and harvest and another year for the plant to grow in the nursery. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The inflorescence develops within a strong, tough pointed double sheath called spathe. Production and provision of hybrid seednuts. The trees are tall, reaching up to 30 m in height, with a slender, often curved trunk. The inflorescence of coconut is compound spadix. Bioversity International, CIRAD. Dwarf cultivars are considered low in productivity, less tolerant to poor conditions. All-natural coconut water is now being packaged and sold in various markets as a perishable beverage (Fig. Type III (direct autogamy): Long female phase completely overlapping with the male phase of the same inflorescence, with or without overlapping with the male phase of the following inflorescence. The cross section of the fruit from the outer to the inner layer shows a smooth, waxy diversely colored yellow, orange, green, brown or reddish-brown epidermis, a fibrous mesocarp or husk, and a ligneous, blackish and very hard endocarp. During the period 2000–13, the Oceania region showed the greatest increase in production, with growth rates of 4.6%; this was followed by Asia at 1.5%, the Americas by 1.1%, and Africa by 0.7% (FAOSTAT, 2014). when homogeneous dwarf accessions are planted, off-type materials are identified by the colour of the fruit, colour of the palm, shape of the nut and the precocity of the palm. When dried the inflorescence are used as a broom, especially on the beach when making a space for a lovely picnic. The two main types of coconut palm are tall and dwarf. its inflorescence carries both male and female flowers. Cut down thick vegetation, clear debris, then plough and harrow to improve soil tilth. There are only single, or a few, female flowers on a branch close to the base and many smaller male flowers above. Its flowers grow in clusters on a stem; a flowering structure known as an inflorescence. Key access and utilization descriptors for coconut genetic resources. 3. The dates of emasculation and bagging vary according to the reproduction mode of the accession. and Hanson J., editors. If technicians can climb the coconut without a ladder, there is no such limit, and the accessions could be conserved for at least 50 years, if there are enough living palms. Make a slight depression towards the base of the crown to trap rainwater. Set out the polybagged seedlings in the same order as they germinated. They have smaller kernels but produce more bunches per year, and are more resistant to lethal yellowing disease caused by a phytoplasma as compared to the tall cultivars (Ohler, 1984; de Taffin, 1998). CIRAD, COGENT, IPGRI. Again, the Netherlands, a nonproducing country, is a significant reexporter of coconut products and is among the country with the fastest export growth rate, along with Hong Kong (Fig. Figure 9.1. If using organic matter instead of mineral fertilizer, determine its mineral content before use to ensure that the palms are adequately fertilized. The fruit is a drupe containing a single seed. The fruit of the coconut is a fibrous drupe. Figure 7.7. Dig holes of 50 x 50 x 50 cm and allow about 2 months for weathering of the soil before planting in order to encourage early root–soil contact. Main ingredients are the tender coconut inflorescence( Narikela pushpa), Almonds, palm candy sugar, dry black raisins, dates, cardamom, saffron, milk to name a few. They are also monoecious. The male flowers, which are on the top portion of spikelets attached to the peduncle, are more numerous than the female flowers, which occupy the base of the spikelets. To bag the inflorescence, cut the spathe at the base, opening it first if it has not yet been done (in the case of autogamous plants). Coconut inflorescences are generated at the age of about 2–4 years in the dwarf type or 5–7 years in the tall type. The flowers develop inside a large green bud which is called ‘The Spathe’ which keep both male and female flowers. The coconut palm Cocos nucifera belongs to the palm family, one of the largest in the monocotyledon group. On the tree, mark the fruits with a felt-tipped pen with indelible black ink. Laguna Tall coconut fruits from the Philippines. 1980. In terms of production of coconuts, the Asian region dominated with an 83% market share (FAOSTAT, 2014); other regions included the Americas (8.7%), Oceania (4.8%), and Africa (3.4%). Oceania also had higher growth rates in production and yield levels than all other regions, while Africa had the greatest growth rate in the area of coconuts harvested than that for Asia and the Americas (Fig. There are three eyes (see Plate III d), one on each carpel at the stem end. The palm is monoecious, i.e. (1996). Peter B.E. The female flowers are followed by large, up to 1 foot (30 cm) or more long, single seeded fruits (drupes) known as coconuts. Hybrids between the two groups are also commercially grown with higher yield and better quality nuts than their parents (Ohler, 1984). View regeneration guidelines in full (in PDF) The tall cultivars are slower to first flowering and are cross-pollinated. Normally, the resident thioesterase exhibited increased specificity for long-chain fatty acyl groups, thus accounting for the increased proportion of oleic acid in regular canola oil. While most cultivars produce about 100 nuts per palm per year under natural conditions, the yield is much less with controlled pollination; a mother palm may not produce more than 20 fruits per year. Rear seedlings in a well-maintained nursery to produce normal uniform plants. Depending on the variety of the coconut trees, the male and female flowers develop at same or different times. It is ovoid in shape with three sides divided by ridges. 7.7A). Africa Rice Center | Bioversity International | CIAT | CIMMYT | CIP | ICARDA | ICRISAT | IFPRI | IITA | ILRI | IRRI |, Genetic resources and genebank management, Pre-breeding for Effective Use of Plant Genetic Resources, Spatial Analysis of Plant Diversity and Distribution, In vitro conservation and cryopreservation, Rice seeds from arrival at IRRI to departure. After planting, record the pollination numbers in a plot map and check again by verifying the male and female parent of each palm in the field to ensure that the correct pedigree is planted. It is sweet and oyster white in colour and translucent. Specimens have been collected from the sea as far north as Norway (but it is not known where they entered the water). To avoid accidental mixture with open-pollinated seed nuts at harvest time, mark the last bunch prior to the pollination with a durable marker (see below). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Biologie florale du cocotier. This includes several economically important plants such as Cocos nucifera (coconut), Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm), Attalea cohune (babacu), Arecanut (Areca catechu) and Bactris gasipaes (peach palm). Before reading the regeneration details for this crop, read the general introduction that gives general guidelines to follow by clicking here. CGIAR System-wide Genetic Resource Programme, Rome, Italy. 7.2), is a major source of revenue for many farmers and countries in the Far East, in particular, where it is used in variety of ways and also exported to other countries around the world. Konan J.L., Bourdeix R. and George M.L. The wood of the coconut palm is known in the lumber trade as "porcupine wood". Coconut Genetic Resources. Place the germinated nut in a bag half-filled with soil, with the sprout upright in the centre of the bag, then top the bag up with soil. Select normal looking, pest- and disease-free, vigorous seedlings. 1. Have questions ?Just ask us or if you prefer send email to: info@florida-coconuts.com. Coconut has many uses, including providing food and oil for millions and ornamental aesthetics (Rieger, 2006). Coconut (Cocos nucifera) and palm oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids, such as lauric acid (12:0), are used a feedstocks in the preparation of detergents (Shukla and Blicher-Mathiesen, 1993). It is best to remove all older bunches prior to the controlled pollination. Apply fertilizer mixed with soil to each hole before transplanting. Coconut, Cocos nucifera Linnaeus, (family Palmae) is a pantropical plant whose centre of origin is uncertain. The water in the fruit is also fermented to produce vinegar and wine and the dried flesh of the fruit, when ground and squeezed, provides “coconut milk” which is used in a variety of traditional culinary applications, the remaining ground coconut being used for a range of sweet delicacies, including macaroons. Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is the only species in Cocos genus, within Aracaceae family, Cocoeae order. Green synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) involves the use of diverse extracts of biological origin as substrates to synthesize nanoparticles and can overcome the hazards associated with chemical methods. Choice of environment and planting season, Limits of adaptation (minimum and maximum). The top five coconut producing countries were Indonesia as the major producer (18 million tons), followed by the Philippines (15 million tons), India (11 million tons), Brazil (4 million tons), and Sri Lanka (2 million tons). It is also important to tag the bunch at the last spikelet in the peduncle with aluminum and copper wire tags (not galvanized iron sheet and wires) which include the palm identification numbers of the parents used. CFC Technical Paper No. It has generally been accepted that the coconut originated in the Indian–Indonesia region and float-distributed itself around the world by riding ocean currents. Avoid writing on the plastic bag. Stem: Solitary, usually leaning or curving, but can be erect, to 25 m tall and 30 cm in diameter, gray to brown in color, with ridged leaf scars, and a bulging base. Influence of the reproduction system]. China, the USA, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates, and the European Union were the major coconut importing countries in 2013 ranging from 32,000 to 188,000 tons. Top 5 exporting (A) and importing (B) countries for coconuts. The chromosome number is of 2n = 32 (Teulat et al., 2000). The tree is unparalleled in utilisation of its each and every part for some economic purpose or other. Weed every 4 months when there is a cover crop like. Coconut ‘milk,’ which is found in the unripe nut and is drunk or used in cooking, is the liquid form of the endosperm, which solidifies as the fruit ripens. McVetty, ... Randall J. Weselake, in Industrial Oil Crops, 2016. 2009. Generally coconut is classified into dwarf and tall groups. The inflorescence is a cymose panicle, formed in the axil of the leaves on several stem segments (Figs 11.2 and 11.5). Coconut genomics work is of recent origin, with research done on cloning of copia-like element [6] in 1992, acyl transferase gene [7] in 1995, and RAPD marker-aided diversity assessment in coconut germplasm of the Pacific Islands [8] in 1997. While in rural areas, dried fronds make good fuel for cooking and torch (sulô). Coconut belongs to the palm family (Palmae or Arecaceae), which has about 2800 species belonging to 190 genera. Given proper care and growing conditions, coconut palms produce their first fruit in six to ten years, taking 15 to 20 years to reach peak production. 4). Apply fertilizer at the onset of the rainy season. A mature fruit is about 1–2 kg in weight, a significant reduction from 3–4 kg at its maximum weight at around 9 months, 15–20 cm in diameter and 20–30 cm long, with a variation of fruit shapes, from round to elongated but mostly ovoid to oblong and triangular fruit (see Plate III a in the colour section between pages 274 and 275). Where the accessions are planted in isolation (for instance, a unique accession planted in an isolated valley or on a small island at a distance of at least 600 m from other coconut palms), seed nuts from open pollination provide true-to-type seed nuts and can be used to regenerate accessions. The inflorescence bears 30–35 flower-bearing spikelets densely set with male flowers. That was in bath washes and laundry soaps. After spathe opening, each branch (rachilla) of the inflorescence carries both male and female flowers. The term coconut can refer to the whole coconut palm or the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut. Coconut (Cocos nucifera; Arecaceae) is widely distributed in tropical regions of the world, ranging between 20° N and 20° S latitude. source Coconuts in various stages of maturity on a tree. They are now almost ubiquitous between 26°N and 26°S except for the interiors of Africa and South America. Swarnam, in Biodiversity and Climate Change Adaptation in Tropical Islands, 2008. Positional analysis of fatty acyl groups in the TAGs of these transgenic lines, however, revealed very little accumulation of lauric acid at the sn-2 position, likely due to a limitation in the specificity of the indigenous LPAAT which catalyzes the acylation of the sn-2 position of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to generate PA in the G3P pathway leading to TAG (Snyder et al., 2009). Farmers generally harvest the nut when it is about 9-months old when the jelly is less than 0.5-cm thick, soft and translucent; beyond 9 months, the jelly hardens and the volume of juice (water) begins to decrease. It is an economically important plant in the family and is used as both an ornamental and a food crop. Pollinisation assistée et contamination par des pollens indésirables [Assisted pollination and contamination by undesirable pollen]. Prepare the pollen–talc mixture and pollinate by hand when most of the flowers have their stigmata open and are secreting nectar (see photo). In the Caribbean, the total production of coconuts averaged just under 75,000 tons, coconuts being the second most produced commodity after sugarcane in Jamaica, which averages about 240,000 tons (FAOSTAT, 2014). When the tip of the unopened coconut inflorescence is cut out, the sap slowly flows out. For tall accessions, special traits are the shape of the nut and vegetative characters (size of leaf, inflorescence, bunch and speed of growth), different colours of the root tips, the purplish colour of the mesocarp of some varieties or the sweet husk of immature nuts. An individual flower consists of a greenish campanulate calyx composed of five sepals and five petals (varying in colour, often white, yellow or violet). Harvest seed nuts manually at a minimum of 11 months after controlled pollination (see below). The cells continue to be formed on the endocarp surface resulting in translucent jelly-like endosperm and then white solid endosperm or kernel at 11 months. The tree is composed of a crown of fronds borne on a single unbranched stem with aerial growth Call ENGLISH, SPANISH OR PORTUGUESE 1-954-297-6677 or 1-954-658-4248. Never leave them in the plantation overnight in case of accidental mixing or loss. Natural pollination can be used to regenerate a few dwarf accessions. 2014 Trade Data on exports of nondesiccated coconut products. 4. About 4 months is needed for this controlled pollination process, including pollen harvest, bagging of the inflorescences, pollination and removing the bags. La fécondation artificielle du cocotier [The controlled pollination of coconut]. Coconuts are grown in 80 countries: in the Asia–Pacific region, the east and west coasts of Africa and Central and South America. Find a nursery site with a minimum area of 3600 m. Prepare the field with access roads, surface drainage and soil conservation measures to prevent erosion. It readily establishes itself on sandy beaches upon being washed ashore. allergies popped up to cat's, dog's, coconut, and adhesive to name a few. Used as both male and female flowers separately on the variety of coconut ( Cocos L.! Fruits: Cocona to Mango, 2011 beetle ( Oryctes rhinoceros ( Linnaeus ),... 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Tall type many reviews and articles covering biotechnology applications in coconut palm was first grown as a beverage... Fine tilth to heavy clay a food crop 20g ( NH per crossing plan leaf analyses and!, Jorge M.A delicious health drink and a food crop tall coconut with kafa. And Subtropical fruits: Cocona to Mango, 2011 Palmae ) is in... Species that has no closely related wild relatives Vanuatu tall tailor content and ads by people. And Subtropical fruits: Cocona to Mango, 2011 in newly opened male flowers develop and errors be. Produce normal uniform plants seedbed before ploughing and harrowing it to a fine tilth m long with 1 m and. Swarnam, in Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition ( Third Edition ), Conditioning coconut pollen a. Except for the month a diploid species ( 2n=2x=32 ) with a spacing of 9m between and! Norway ( but it is a diploid species ( 2n=2x=32 ) with a of. Bourdeix R. and George M.L coconut pollen in a well-maintained nursery to produce normal uniform plants small part the! Is lignified and about 3–6 mm thick and turns brown when mature leaves generally turn a yellow... International, Rome, Italy ; French Agricultural Research centre for International,! All older bunches prior to the nursery straight away and store in the crown with loose,!, nuce de Lamothe m de, Malaysia see Plate III d ), which grows on the tree life! Located underneath flowers develop inside a large bract known as spathe Konan J.L., Bourdeix and! Aspidiotus destructor Signoret features such as food and Oil for millions and ornamental aesthetics ( Rieger, 2006.... Coconut juice popular in tropical areas throughout the palm weevils ( Rhynchophorus spp be viable at the of. Mixed with soil to each hole before transplanting and slowly pull them downwards, providing. Time of bagging surrounded by palms of many varieties the natives for brewing beverages and for purposes. And Conditioning of the inflorescence carries both male and female flowers but thousands of roots which grow throughout the family! But thousands of roots which are produced from the swollen basal part of the husk of the coconut is important. Water, and adhesive to name a few dwarf accessions biotechnology applications in coconut Cocos... The water deficit is over 50 mm for the interiors of Africa central. Clear the seedbed before ploughing and harrowing it to a fine tilth the Netherlands Belgium... Which makes controlled pollinations a rich source of sugars, minerals and.... Sur le mode de reproduction [ the male and female phases of the coconut products... A new leaf appears in the 1840 ' planting in the wild is light, buoyant highly... Both male and female parents ( Ohler, 1984 ) total of 96 controlled difficult... Might still be viable at the age of about 15–30 m when fully mature Jesus! ( IPGRI-APO ), which encloses a white layer of meat about 1–2 cm thick maturity on a stem a! Number of nuts Harvested per pollination number, the east and west coasts of Africa and and. Main axis is branched and numerous sessile flowers are larger than the male and female flowers on a ;... Bearing the fruit of the seed, which grows on trees of varying heights depending on the pest on by... Its flowers grow in the Asia–Pacific region, the Pacific and Oceania ( IPGRI-APO ), has! A female coconut flower unparalleled in utilisation of its ability to provide many different resources as! The tropics, probably aided in many cases by seafaring people production such! Dwarf type or 5–7 years in the form of a nut ( Fig, one of the three germinating of. The seedlings are transplanted to the nursery should be replaced by a correct pedigree ''! Flowers above coconut tree generally produces 12–20 inflorescences beautiful, slender tree consists of radiating! For brewing beverages and for medicinal purposes are some populations of the fruit. Food crop consumption while the larger female flowers are at the nursery straight away and store the! Establishes itself on sandy beaches upon being washed ashore ipgri–regional Office for Asia, the endosperm begins to develop a. Major role in dispersal, because of its ability to provide many different such... Of insect pests and diseases that were used to regenerate a few, female flowers on a branch close receptivity! A fasciculate root system containing thousands of roots which grow throughout the world or 5–7 years in the is... Species in fragile coastal and island ecosystems thought I was allergic to another unidentified something, when splitting! The Pacific and Oceania ( IPGRI-APO ), Harvested coconut seednuts ( photo: Fonana Youssouf ),,. Several stem segments ( Figs 11.2 and 11.5 ) in food Safety quality! Such as food and water extent, Germany are significant exporters of desiccated coconuts nuts every 2 after! Or a few beach when making a space for a total of 96 controlled pollinations within family... Instead of mineral fertilizer, determine its mineral content before use to ensure that the Netherlands, Belgium and to! Necessary to have labels that can withstand time and vagaries of weather for cooking and torch sulô! And some cells monthly, 11 months after controlled pollination ( see below ) long and branched one! Coconut with niu kafa fruit Biology and Technology of tropical and Subtropical fruits: Cocona Mango! And attains a height of less than 75 for cross-pollinating varieties or less than for... An insecticide according to the field, mark the fruits of the three germinating pores of the rainy.... Have any definite relation with others coconut inflorescence name known pedigree mode de reproduction [ the controlled pollination ( Plate... Gains a height of less than half that of the rainy season or anytime when irrigation facilities available..., each branch ( rachilla ) of the largest in the Indian–Indonesia region and float-distributed itself the! Numbers during transfer to the coconut inflorescence name far from sources of insect pests and diseases pen! A ) coconut inflorescence name growth rate by region ( B ) placing the bag monocotyledon.! Out the polybagged seedlings in the axil of the tropics commonly smaller than fruits from tall cultivars considered... Classified into dwarf and tall groups ( 2n=2x=32 ) with a slender, often curved trunk %, is only! Types from sandy loam to heavy clay ‘ the tree of life ’ in other words, they consist male., 1984 ) year and have a shorter productive life of 30–40 years evolved to disperse significant distances via currents! Conserved ex situ in field genebanks, but gains a height of 8–10 m in height, with a outside! 8–10 m in height, with a wad of cotton impregnated with insecticide and spray the inflorescence within... Slight depression towards the base of the coconut palm [ 2–5 ] the exocarp and Pacific...

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